Opening Plenary

23 May, 2016, at 2 p.m.:

HANS PETTER HOLEN: OK. Welcome, everybody. Welcome ‑‑ I have to apologise for my improper Danish pronunciation, I am the Chair of RIPE and I am from Norway and that is not far away, and 200 years ago it was part of Denmark, so it's almost home.

So, I understand we have some technical problems here so the slides will change whenever the technicians feel like so it will be interesting to see what happens.

Welcome to this RIPE meeting, I think there are three slides before this, you are now on slide 4, so if you start on 2 ‑‑ this is the biggest meeting so far; we have 753 participants, and it's still growing. So, ask for a ‑‑ as for a community it's really interesting to see how this is growing.

So the meeting is open to everyone. It's interesting that I flip and then it turns twice. And mind you, this is a meeting, not a conference, so this is a venue for you to interact with the presenters, with each other, in the corridor, in the hallways, at the socials, in order to create the best possible experience for all of you. This is about building a community to share experiences and improve the Internet in our region.

So, we want this meeting to be as safe and supportive area, that means that we ‑‑ so, we want this to be a safe and supportive society, community. It's always been. We are many more than we used to be and we are from many more cultures and countries so please be nice to each other, and if you experience something that you think is not appropriate, we have two trusted contacts, Nick and Mirjam, sitting over there, and you can talk to them and they can help you with any concerns you have.

So, looking at this in a bigger perspective, if we look into the future of RIPE, where are we going, what is happening to our community? We now have 13‑and‑a‑half thousand members. That is three‑and‑a‑half thousand more members than two years ago. So, the RIPE community is much bigger than the RIPE NCC membership, which is growing with this speed, and we have a lot of newcomers to these meetings, this meeting is the biggest ever. We have a lot of newcomers here. That means that we need to take particular care of welcoming new people and treat everybody with respect. We have a lot of policy discussions going on, especially in the Address Policy Working Group on Wednesday morning with how do we distribute the remaining IPv4 addresses. It's important to realise that a lot of participants here have not taken part in discussions that we did two years ago, five years ago, 20 years ago, so we need to be open to have discussions again, that has been done in the past and we need to listen to the arguments and treat each other with respect. That is vital for us as a community to develop and see how we can best work together in the future.

Now when that is said, it's always also important to realise that with IPv4 space, the legacy old IP addresses, there isn't anything left; we have a small reserve so new members can get a /22, as we call it, around a thousand addresses, so they can start up a business. But this is not things you can build your future on. The only way to survive in the future is to implement v6 from the start, then you can get some v4 addresses so you can boot strap and still be connected to the legacy Internet, but it is possible today to build v6 networks and have transition mechanisms to v4 and that is the only sustainable way going forward.

It's also interesting to see that something is happening to the openness of the Internet. From the engineering point of view, we like the Internet to be completely open, but then we have governments looking at things, and I think one of the most important decisions that happened in the last year was when the European Court went in and said, Oh hey, this safe harbour thing that has been between the EU and US, that is not according to the laws of EU, so, no, it's not possible to easily export personal data, personal information between the EU and other countries. That is kind of put a chilling effect of usage of Cloud services and other services hosted outside the EU, so what does that mean for us? It means that we need to not only understand the engineering principles, but also understand the legal framework of what is going on around us, it may be an opportunity for European companies to launch services that compete with the US Cloud services or whatever, but it also means that we need to think carefully on how to design our services so that they keep data from our customers for ourself private and secure. So look at securing encryption, look at secure communications and secure design of services. I think that is going to be very important looking forward.

So, moving to the meeting plan, you can see how that there is a lot of things going on. On Wednesday and Thursday, there are Working Groups, that are more specialised groups than the plenary. And I already mentioned Address Policy. You also have things on measurements and on cooperation between private public sector. There is routing, open source, anti‑abuse, that is the security aspect so how to make sure that the network infrastructure isn't misused for spam or denial of service and so on. And we have database and DNS and IPv6. There is also a group that is a bit special, which is the RIPE NCC Services Working Group, which is kind of leading up to the general assembly, so in order to be part of the general assembly on Wednesday evening, you need to be a member of the RIPE NCC association. But all the presentations leading up to the formal general assembly is presented in the Services Working Group so that everybody can participate and discuss what services the RIPE NCC should provide to its member and to the community.

And of course, there are socials in the evening and there are a lot of coffee breaks and lunches so that you can interact with each other.

The Working Groups are led by Chairs that are appointed by the Working Groups. You will see here that, for instance, the Cooperation Working Group, there is only one Chair, that is because there is no process to select a couple of more Chairs here. And all these processes to put in place the Chairs have been put in place by the Working Group over the last year or two. Now, there is one picture that is not on this slide, that used to be here for many years, actually since before I joined this community; and that is Wilfried Woeber. Wilfried, can you come up? I want to extend a warm thanks to you for the services that you have given to the RIPE community over all these years. You have been the Chair of the Database Working Group since my first meeting. You put me to work as your scribe at the first meeting I attended at the RIPE meeting, so see what happened with that. You have been a member of the Address Council since the beginning, and you still are, and I hope you will still be. So this is in no way a goodbye from me but a sincere thanks for all you have done from the community, and we have a small gift here to show that we appreciate all the work you have done for us.

WILFRIED WOEBER: And you know there is a funny incident that gift in English language actually means poison in the German language. So thank you for the poison.

HANS PETTER HOLEN: So it does in Norweigan, but that was not the intent. And we know you are retiring now from your day job so we just wanted to make sure that we were able to appreciate you before you left but we hope that you will come to many more years in the future.

WILFRIED WOEBER: At least for a year I guess, until my term on the Address Council ends.

HANS PETTER HOLEN: Thank you very much.

OK. The next thing up here is that, two years ago when Rob appointed me as his successor, he also said that he didn't want to the spend remaining part of his career as RIPE Chair to establish a new process. Now, unfortunately since the last RIPE meeting, Rob has passed away, so I suggest that we do a minute in silence to remember him and all that he meant for our community.

I am quite sure that Rob wanted us to go on and make sure that this community prospers also in the future and one of the tasks he left me with was to make sure that it was a process to replace me. So, that's been talked about over the last couple of years, and how could that be done and if you look at the membership survey that has been out, there has been a clear feedback that yes, you are happy with Hans Petter being selected a Chair but we really wanted to be able to vote in that process, we want, as a community, to be part of that process. Now, bringing voting into RIPE meetings may be controversial, some of you says, but not really; the community set up the RIPE NCC association in the beginning of the '90s and when that was a legal organisation it needed a board and that had to be elected by the members on voting so. That is the kind of first voting procedure that was introduced in this community. Then, the next place we introduced this was when electing the AC members, when I was elected an AC member there was a paper ballot in the room electing me and Wilfried and Sabine and John, so we have done selections not only there but lately also with PC, which is done electronically. And we have now also moved to electronic voting in the General Assembly to elect the Board. So, we have a sort of a clear history here on how we elect somebody. So my thinking in creating a process for selecting the RIPE Chair is basically, taking the elements from the procedures that we have, the board procedure, there is an open call for nominations, you need five supporters in order to be a nominee, and then there is presentation and selections on the meetings and so on, and then we do a variation of the electronic vote, and there you have the process. The only challenge we have is that there isn't any membership definition for the RIPE community, so we need to figure out how to do that, and looking at how the IETF does that there is a definition in one of the RFCs on how they select their Nom Coms and being present at three out of five meetings. So putting these pieces together, maybe that ‑‑ or I think that is a very good process to replace me when that time comes. What I have been working a bit on now is to write up this in a proposal with the rep of RIPE NCC staff which is involved in other processes, we will be finishing up the text on that this week and circulating for comments on the mailing list after this week. So, if any of you have thoughts or opinions on this, contact me during this meeting or when this is published on the mailing list later on or however we try to gather information, please state your opinion then. If we select the RIPE Chair that should be for a longer period, that has been suggested five years. That is a long time between the selection, I suggest we use the same procedure to select the Address Council members as well so we will sort of have the habit of doing this almost every year.

So, my proposal then is that we finalise the procedure between now and the next meeting. Then we use that procedure for the Address Council member election at the next RIPE meeting, and then we do an election for the RIPE Chair for the meeting after that. Now, I am not intending to run away from you at that point, so I will be running for the RIPE Chair then, but it's also an opportunity for others to run for that and for you as a community decide who should be the RIPE chair for the next five years. So, this has been something that has been mumbled upon in the corridors for a long time, so now you have heard my proposal and you will see it in writing later this week.

If you want to participate in discussions at the meeting, please go to the microphone, state your name and affiliation and now Benno, the Programme Committee, you want to say two words about that.

BENNO OVEREINDER: I only want to spend two minutes giving credit to my friends, the RIPE Programme Committee, please can you stand up. So these people make the plenary programme possible. They spend a lot of time in selecting and shepherding presentations. If you have any questions, suggestions, please contact one of us because feedback is very important to improve upon, well, selection process and we make the plenary programme for you so your feedback is very important. Thanks, guys and girls.

Three announcements: There are PC elections. There are two seats available, so please take the time to talk with us, nominate yourself, nomination closes at 3:30 tomorrow. Contact one of us if you are interested. It's really a very nice job, very rewarding.

Rate presentations on the website ‑‑ on the programme, you can rate presentations. Feedback is very important for us again. And if you find us ‑‑ third announcement: If you find us in the corridoor, please approach us, talk with us, tell us what you like, what you dislike or, better, if you have any new ideas you want to see in the RIPE meeting, do you want more security, do you want more privacy related subjects, please approach us, we are more than happy to facilitate and reserve sessions on these topics. This is all I want to tell and mention.

HANS PETTER HOLEN: Thank you, Benno.

So, jumping quickly further. There is also some options here to meet the RIPE NCC Executive Board tonight at 6:30, and there are welcome drinks for everybody from 9:00. So you can actually be early and get drinks together with the Board. And then tomorrow, there is a party at Tivoli Gardens, and on Thursday there is a RIPE dinner. So Wednesday, that is a do‑it‑yourself social, you have to engage with others.

And I want to say thank you very much to our host, DKNOG, and our sponsors, you can see the names here, the meeting wouldn't be the same without them.

And now I thought I had sort of the perfect keynote speaker lined up because whenever we go to some countries, I mean there is a minister or vice minister or something lining up in order to talk to the community, not in this part of Europe really but in other parts of Europe. So, I thought we had the sort of the head of the Swedish regulator coming to talk to us but apparently he told me over dinner yesterday that this morning he starts as the new ICANN CEO, but since he needs to be looked after so then Lousewires will say some words about ICANN and we will see what happens after that.

LOUSEWIRES VAN DER LAAAN: Hi everyone. They will be uploaded at some point. It's a privilege for me to be here, I want to take a couple of moment to talk about relationship between RIPE and ICANN or actually ICANN and the original Internet registries.

I have them here, do I need to tap something? . It's my first RIPE meeting and so I'm also a newcomer, I attended the newcomers session and I am here basically to listen and learn. I have been to an ARIN meeting, I have this hash tag going, it's not going to be a battle but I will be making the comparison to see how things are going, I have been reliably informed the socials are much better.

The next one, please. Very good. So as you all know, the Regional Internet Registries participate in the numbers resource organisation, which somehow magically morphs into the address supporting organisation which then appoints two people to the ICANN board, that is the formal relationship that we have. No so these are the three RIPE members on there. So this is the ICANN board, and so the two that come basically from you guys are our board members number 9 and 10, so that is Ron de Silva from America and Koo Wan who is from Taiwan ‑‑ and Ron just joined with me in October in Dublin and Koo is going to be there only until October so there is a new spot up and I know that the elections are ongoing so we look forward to getting a new colleague. I am one of the orange people, it's not because I am Dutch but come from the nominating committee. And there should be other ICANN people here, I don't know if everyone has already arrived yet, but I know my colleague Susan wolf from the board is here, there in the back, can you stand up? I think Erika and Schween haven't arrived yet, our vice‑president for Europe. I think Nala should be here and Rea is arriving later and I saw ‑‑ did I miss anybody? Yes, Paul over there that you know. You will get the floor later.

It's good. You know that you are with us now. So just a few words on what happens since I joined. I am on the organisational effectiveness committee, which interestingly, does reviews of the supporting organisations so at least every five years you guys also will get reviewed and then we get to kind of control each other, I always like that the way we review each other and make sure the community works well. I am very closely involved in the inter‑governmental aspect which I find interesting because there is almost two schools of thought on the role of governments, one is that they are a wonderful and important member of the multi‑stakeholder stakeholder model and these are the people you need to keep away from the running of the Internet and leave it to the people who make it work like you guys and I think somewhere on that spectrum we will find a good balance.

The important thing that happens since Dublin and you see there the picture of our chairman Stephen Crocker sending the e‑mail to the American government about the transition which hopefully will come to its final fruition and I want to give thanks to everybody here who helped make that happen because it was a huge process over many years which worked only because a lot of people put volunteer time into it and that is greatly appreciated.

Last but not least, I think one of the most important decisions we made is we selected a new CEO and so I am going to hand over to him. I am still getting used to his sense of humour, on his first ever working day has decided to come and share here with the community. So a warm welcome.

SPEAKER: And I have a great sense of humour and I am not going to use any slides, I thought it was easier. First of all, yes, I am now being president and CEO of ICANN for five hours and 31 minutes, so I am fairly new to the job. And I am actually very happy to be able to spend the day together with you, it feels very natural to actually to be here instead of LA. How many newcomers was here? Raise your hand. Can I ask you a personal question: Has anyone of you figured out this thing with acronyms so far? Does anyone feel that they still have some acronyms to learn? I spent like ‑‑ I actually started working with ICANN the 1st of April so I have been to what I call an on‑boarding course or training course in acronyms, I now reach the point where I am acronym fatigued. I ask my team never to talk about acronyms with me for a long time. I don't think that is going to work.

One thing that I have been doing over the last couple of weeks trying to define what the president and CEO are supposed to be doing which is interesting, because a lot of people has a view on that and this being my first speech as the head, I am not going to spend so much time talking about it, but I am going to give you something about it. Is that I am the head of a support organisation, my job is to make sure that the policy making process within the ICANN community actually works. And I think that is a very nice opportunity, it's a very nice job and it's very, very important. And I am examining to say that just to be clear that I am not the head, and I am not the CEO of ICANN; I am actually the CEO of an ICANN organisation who is made to support the community to be able to reach policy decisions. It's my job to facilitate that discussion. Looking ahead, as transition, transition is going on and I have to say, coming in as an outsider I am deeply impressed with the amount of work a lot of people have spent coming up to whatever in Marrakech and what happened afterwards in the bylaws laws discussion process. It's a proof actually that this process work, that the multi‑stakeholder model works and bottom up model works. There is people who say it doesn't work, we need other types of process to be able to do that but looking at the document we sent over to the US government in Marrakech proves this is the point that this is living thing that works very well and I thank you for it and the amount of work a lot of you people has put into this and the commitment is fantastic.

As was mentioned, I am a recovering regulator, and I come from Sweden, who once be belonged to Denmark. By the way, we all now belong to Norway thanks to their oil. I have a confession to make: As a part of duties working making sure more government agents using IP version 6, so my confession is that I think that what you are doing is as important but also is fun. What you are doing especially in the decision is extremely important when it comes to IP version 6. Aye spoke to some of your colleagues yesterday and over the weekend when I turned into begging, please let me be involved in that process, let me and my organisation to be involved. It's voluntary for you, your own organisation but please, you see the begging part of this one, it's one of the few times you will seat ICANN CEO starts begging, but I think it's very important and because I think it's very fun, it's important because you and I as in this together, because it's actually all the parts we have doing the Internet functional, we each of you have our own parts but it's when we really come together we can make a change and I really would like to work with you as partners to be able to do Internet even better and even through more people. About 50% of everybody today has access to Internet. We have to make sure that more people get access to Internet, and the only way we can do that together and and IP version 6 is an essential part of that. Up until now we have written the first chapter of the Internet history, after the transition we will write the rest of the book. And I look forward to do that together with you. And thank you for sharing my first day with me, thank you.

HANS PETTER HOLEN: Then I would like to welcome our local host Benjamin to the stage, please.

BENJAMIN BLANGSTRUP: I think it's the wrong slide. Hello everyone. Welcome to Copenhagen. I am vice‑chair of the DKNOG association and I am going to talk about what we are and what we do. I am Benjamin, I am vice Chair, been working with network for about ten years, and been working with the DKNOG association for about six or seven years.

So, what is DKNOG: We are an established nonprofit association, we are inspired by the bigger NOGs like UKNOF and NANOG. And we are a community of technicians network related in Denmark. So what do we do: The primary thing is that we organise a yearly event, a yearly meeting where we invite people to come and talk about network related stuff. It's a full one day event, I will talk about that in a bit. We have an IRC channel where a lot of people hangout, mostly idling but sometimes people actually ask questions, very useful. We have a Facebook page and a Twitter account. And we try to organise some informal events during the year, other than the main event.

So how did it start: It started actually on IRC a few ‑‑ yes, I guess ten years ago, approximately. People started to organise small events where we could have beer and food, and some of us start, why not make this into something bigger and we started to do this more formal event every year, started in March 2011 with DKNOG 1 and we have been doing an event once a year since then.

So, DKNOG meetings, once a year. Full day of presentations, no sales pitches, only relevant network‑related content. And a big important part of such an event is the social in the evening, yes. And we rely on an attendee fee, voluntary work and sponsors.

This is a picture of ‑‑ from the attendees from DKNOG 1 in 2011, and up until now, so we are ‑‑ we are going down a bit now but I think we are examining to be around 120 next year as well, hopefully a bit more, I hope to see a lot of you joining us, there is outside of Denmark.

So, why would you attend a DKNOG meeting? It's ‑‑ we claim that it's the only independent NOG in the Nordics. You get to meet all the local operators, it's mostly technical people there. Not so many managers. And you get to visit Copenhagen more often.

So why did we want to ‑‑ to host a RIPE 72? Yeah, besides that we want to support the good work of RIPE and the community and the Working Groups, we thought it would be a good way to promote DKNOG and, yeah, attract more foreign attendees, so hopefully some of you will join us next year. We already set a date.

DKNOG 7 will be march 16th, 2017, so note that down, please, and join us. I think that was it from me. Thank you, enjoy the stay.

BENNO OVEREINDER: So the next ‑‑ I am happy to introduce the first plenary speaker, Lasse Jarlskov could have, give an overview of the Nordic, the network ‑‑ is it research network?


BENNO OVEREINDER: So I am happy to present here ‑‑ to give the floor.

LASSE JARLSKOV: Thank you. I am with the DKNOG association as well, like Benjamin, so I am very happy that could you all come to this event in Copenhagen. I think this is actually the first time since 2001 or so that RIPE meeting has been in the Nordics, so we are very excited about that.

I didn't actually bring a marketing slide but for Benjamin's sake maybe I should have ‑‑ TDC, apart from DKNOG, I spent a little time with them. TDC is the incumbent operator of Denmark, the phone company, they usually call us. We have about 55% broadband market share in Denmark we have broadband customers, a subsidiary in Norway, we have business services throughout Scandinavia, Denmark, Norway and Sweden. So, I should have brought awe marketing slide, I will explain later, Benno.

I said Scandinavia, who here knows the difference between the Nordics and Scandinavia, could I have a show of hands, please. A few, like 10%. So, this is the Nordics. The Nordics is made up of five countries, basically. We have Denmark, Norway, Sweden, which is Scandinavia, and apart from that we have the Faroe Islands and Finland ‑‑ Iceland and Finland. Then there are the ‑‑ then there are the self‑governing regions, like Greenland and the Faroe Islands would belong to Denmark and not to forget which is autonomous part of Finland. Apart from the geography lesson and on the previous slide there is a little link to a YouTube video which is very good in explaining how Denmark, Scandinavia is different from the Nordics. A part of the geography lesson, I'm ‑‑ I want to give you an introduction to the Nordics, the connectivity here, which are the fibre infrastructure that you could utilise if you are planning on building your network into the Nordics, so how to connect into the Nordics. The different markets, I'm going to cover five of the markets but the four main ones in particular so who to connect with and last but not least, the data centres and the IXPs so where to connect.

So these are the countries. Of course, you are in Denmark, this is Copenhagen, there are about 5 .7 million people here. The top level domain is dot DK and just down the city centre there is a Lego store, it's awesome, I recommend you go there. If you have kids go there, if you don't go anyway. Sweden of course 9.9 million people, famous for IKEA. IKEA is everywhere. Norway has a lot of Fjords, Finland has a lot of lakes, so on. In Greenland, there are polar bears, I am told. Yes. And in Aland we have Kurtis.

So the highlights of the Nordics or as I like to put it, where to pop. Stockholm, of course, is your interconnection hub, that is pretty much where everything comes together, you have a lot of capacity coming in from the east, you have lots of Russian carriers and Chinese carriers peering there. Those cables tend to come from ‑‑ come in via Finland and Helsinki but for some reason, most carriers are bypassing Helsinki, going directly to Stockholm. Probably not by the least due to Netnod, which is a main hub there. Copenhagen, here we are, is also a great place. It's the gateway to the Nordics, so if you have any connectivity coming from the south, and I am going to show you a map of this later if you are not quite sure where Copenhagen and Stockholm is in relation to each other, but if you have ‑‑ if you have connectivity coming from mainland Europe into Stockholm, chances are it's going to pass through Copenhagen, so why not pop here, and as a fun fact, I can tell you that about 40% of the Swedes actually live closer to Copenhagen than to Stockholm, so if your point is latency, POP in Copenhagen. You have Helsinki, that is your gateway to the east. If you want to connect to Russian carriers out of Stockholm, chances are those cables are coming in through Helsinki.

Iceland has a lot of free power, basically literally coming out of the ground for free. And so hot water and cold air, that is basically what they have there. The connectivity might be somewhat expensive but I ‑‑ there is connectivity to be had.

So, what connectivity is there in the Nordics. So this is a basic map of a network that I know. And maybe it's a bit confusing so I am going to take you through it, the main routes is the triangle between Stockholm, Oslo and Copenhagen, so basically that is your interconnection hub, your hub of Scandinavia, so if you want to connect redundantly out of stoke home, usually you can pass through Oslo and go there and from there you can connect from Copenhagen down into Hamburg and the rest of Europe, you have redundant options to connect west and then south into Hamburg and rest of Europe. The caveat here is that Copenhagen is somewhat of a choke point, so most fibre cables are within a distance of just five kilometres apart when coming from Stockholm through Copenhagen and down into mainland Europe, so what you could do, you do have alternatives, like the direct route from Stockholm to Gothenburg and sea cabling into Denmark like you see here, not passing through the choke point of Copenhagen.

From Oslo, you of course need a redundant option and there is a very convenient sea cable connect the south of Norway to the north of Denmark making you able to connect to the west of Norway in quite a good latency other than if ‑‑ so for instance, connect interesting Amsterdam to berg enor Stefan in a on the western coast of Norway, you could connect directly rather than passing through Copenhagen and Oslo directly, so that is a recommendation if you have some latency sensitive applications.

There are also new developments ongoing, Helsinki being a bit sick of being bypassed in favour of Stockholm, are planning actually to have sea cable all the way down through the Baltic sea into Germany. Supposedly, it's going to shave off quite a bit of latency when connecting from mainland Europe into Helsinki. Also, there are talks about a sea cable from the west of Denmark connecting on a straight line west moo, I believe, somewhere around mid‑else /PWRA* in the UK which can connect to a lot of transatlantic capacity, so there is potential for not only cutting latency on your way to the US but mainly also bypassing the choke point of London, which is usually hard to get around when connecting out of the British aisles. Of course not part of this presentation but out of Helsinki and /TAL inyou also have some Eastern Europe options, going towards Warsaw and from the border of Finland going towards mass co‑and the land route through China is actually through Russia, a very low latency option rather than going south on sea cables from Europe.

So, that is kind of mainland Nordics. Out in the Atlantic ocean we also have some connectivity, basically we need to connect the Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland. So on the left here you see the Greenland connect cable, connecting green two ways, one west into Halifax in an da, and one east into Iceland, and from Iceland you can connect on the far ice or Dan ice into Copenhagen or northern Scotland and further down into London.

So, what to do with all this? Well the markets in these countries, and I am going to focus on the four major markets, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland, because if you saw on my previous slide, Greenland and Iceland are less than a million people, and so the main operators in these markets actually compete very much in each other's countries so we have TDC in Denmark and Tele in Sweden and Telenor in Norway. All of these three incumbent operators in the countries are present in each other's domestic markets and actually have pretty good market share. I do believe the TDC has about 55% broadband market share, while telly and Sweden has some 30 to 40% market share, of broadband subscriptions. The Finns keep mostly to themselves, I don't know why. Finnish networks apparently don't like to often go abroad and build networks there.

Apart from the incumbents, there are notable aggregateers, so if you have ‑‑ once you have covered the more or less three incumbent operators in these markets, if you want to connect to the smaller local operators, then you can connect to the aggregators in Denmark that would be Neonet or Global Connect who basically often offer IP transit services to small networks. In Sweden, you have a bit more variety of IP only Banhauff, TDC and broadband too. While in Norway there are basically a triopoly of it. Telenor, TDC and ‑‑ in Finland, the aggregators are the same people who have the notable market shares. So coming to Nordics, coming here to peer with the local operators, this is basically a list, and I added AS numbers here for your reference so you can find most of these people in the corridor and talk to them about peering.

So, in each of these markets you have your IXPs, you have your data centres, in Copenhagen you have CO MIX and DIX, DIX is legacy IXP, is run by a DIKE apparently. No giggling please. I didn't make up those acronyms, I am sorry. They grew out of the Danish Internet Exchange, out of the technical university, they are pretty much stagnant. And Commix came into the Copenhagen market with the Malmo exchange, Malmo being on the other side of the water into Sweden, connecting the Copenhagen/Malmo metropolitan area very nicely. So Commix very much on par with the Danish Internet Exchange. For your data centres you have interaction as the usual option. You probably already know interaction we have a known operational level and a quality, very good for hosting your large server set‑up. Though they are not on the direct fibre path for the international connectivity, for that would you want to go to global connect facility. They are very much more a small data centre operator but they have the direct capacity north to Stockholm and south through Hamburg.

Next, for ‑‑ in Stockholm you basically have Netnod, running the show with about 1,100 gigabits per second is, across two different LANs, as they say in Sweden why sell one port when you can sell two ports at double the price. You also have your usual set of data centres, you have interaction and you have Telecity Equinix, and both sides are pretty much equally popular. Telecity is probably going to ask to you move to Telecity 2, they are new and smart facility, mind you this is 20 kilometres off site of anything else, so if you want to build there to actually connect to someone you want to POP in Telecity 1 or interaction.

In Oslo, you have NIX, and have two fabrics: 1 ‑‑ they are not interconnected and you don't have to connect to one to ‑‑ you don't have to connect to both of them. Which means that NIX 1 actually has a lot more traffic than the other one.

In the data centres space you have /KWRAO*UFPB which is well connected. You have have trance holler, that side was recently taken over by a new owner who has some fantastic orphan attic visions, depending on whether you believe them or not, about how to restructure that site and do the cross connects there. They are also threatening to start a new IXP in their facility, not being done yet. I do ‑‑ I do think that most of the operators locally in Norway will favour NIX, going forward. But we will see. Also you have, within very, very short range of the other data centres.

And similar situation in Helsinki, you have FICIX 1 and 2, interestingly 2 has the most traffic, while 1 has less. Probably due to 1 being in the suburbs of Helsinki. You have some regional exchanges, which are irrelevant. In Helsinki you have also the data centres, Telecity, Nebula also operating data centres. So that is very quick runthrough of what is going on in the Nordics, where to connect, how to connect. So, any questions or comments on that? Did I offend anyone? Please tell me now so I can run away.

AUDIENCE SPEAKER: One of the Finnish operators. Can you please change that flag to the Finnish one. Thank you.

BENJAMIN BLANGSTRUP: The rest of Scandinavia always like to play a few tricks on the Finns every now and then. Sorry about that.

BENNO OVEREINDER: Still opportunity for one short question? No. OK. Thank you. I hand the mic over to my friend, colleague, Jan.

JAN ZORZ: Good afternoon, I will take care of the housekeeping for the rest of the session. We have some friends coming over from South Africa to tell us about the state of their peering and I would like Andrew to come up and tell us what is going on on the different continent. Just as a note for the speakers, when we show the time, that means questions included, so you need to calculate in the questions and we are running behind. So thank you.

ANDREW OWENS: Thanks, I will try and be as quick as possible. I didn't touch that so I don't know what is happening. So before I start, we have been copping to the RIPE meetings I think since about 2012 and somebody asked me yesterday, what does an African co‑lo operator and IXP operator want at a RIPE meeting, what are you guys doing here? And, you know, when we came here in the beginning, we didn't really know what we were doing, to be honest, and I remember at the meeting in Dublin, I came up on the stage and I was talking about why we don't charge cross‑connect fees or membership fees or port fees for the Internet Exchange point and it was a very contentious issue at this stage but it was relevant in the context of RIPE, because we were excited because on that day, for some reason, we hit our highest peak at the time for the year and it was like a massive 3 gigabit per second for us, and I said this on the stage and just heard crickets afterwards so it was kind of ‑‑ but the point here is that we, you know, everything that we have learned from this community has changed the way that we operate. And, you know, from our small days back then we NAPAfrica is now the largest Internet Exchange in Africa, and if you look at our combined traffic we are closing in on 100 gigabit per second. So yeah, I mean, I will stop with the emotional stuff but from our side, thank you very much to everybody, you know, the friendship and the relationships that we have made here have significantly changed the way that we work.

Thank you. So Denmark is cool, I mean, we had the opportunity of seeing a very large, very bearded guy dressed like a bum bar jack singing he let it go from frozen last night. The taxi drivers are also great. The first taxi driver that we asked we asked him where are all the cool spots to hang out and he very politely told us we are a bit too told hangout in the same places as him. The next taxi driver didn't want to stop for me because he thought I was a homeless person. So great to be here.

So we are talking about Africa. And I'll do the show of hands again. Who knows where Africa is? Cool. So no Americans here.
(Applause) I say that because two weeks ago I was in Chicago and I made the mistake of having a conversation on the street with an American guy, and he said to me where are you from? And I said I am from Africa. He said what, Africa?

So I thought I would try something that might be a bit more familiar and I said to him, no, I am from South Africa and he said oh, that is Australia, right? So Africa is a continent, 54 countries, it is very large. Over a billion people, 40% of which are reachable by fibre. Mobile is massive in Africa, everywhere that you go the projection is that the penetration is going to double over the next five years. We are seeing metro connectivity, mainly in the larger financial hubs, so now you can buy your 100 meg fibre to the business, you can even get a gigabit fibre to the home these days in select areas so everything is growing very quickly. And then of course, in the larger economies, two‑thirds of business with 50 staff members or more have got access to broadband.

So, in the one thing that we missed over there was the number of neutral co‑location facilities has thankfully started to grow, a couple of years ago it was, I think still is one of the things that is holding back the market quite a lot.

So, it's changing and on the right‑hand side there you will see a carrier pigeon, his name is Winston. At the time in South Africa we had the state‑owned incumbent, they were the only ones that were licenced to basically do everything so everybody had to work through them. And as a former protest a couple of ISPs set up this test so they got a carrier pigeon and gave him a memory card with four gigabytes of data on and they had a race between the local incumbent's network and the carrier pigeon. Basically, the carrier pigeon had to fly this four gigabit of data 60 miles away and by the time that Winston arrived at his destination the digital upload had only reached 4%. I think the difference that was Winston was probably UDP because he didn't reply. So that has changed now. There has been a regulated split between ‑‑ in the incumbents, similar to the BT situation in the UK, so we have the wholesale arm has split away from the retail ISP arm and it's ‑‑ they have changed their name to Open Serve. Many of you will know them as 5713, and they are peering now, so if you need any introductions you can speak to me or Winston.

And cables are coming from everywhere, landing on all of the coasts and had a significant impact on the market and most of you will know that Angola cables and NRC are building a cable at the moment between Angola and Brazil so exciting stuff to come. The IXP market is growing as well, we have an official Internet Exchange forum called Af‑IX. We have I think 35 IXPs in 26 countries, the oldest being in Johannesburg which was opened in '96. The newest one started a month ago which is the Gabon, and we estimate that the sum of all of the traffic is about 160 gigabit, the largest of that in South Africa, obviously, where the NAPAfrica, Johannesburg is doing 90 gigabit per second. The market is consolidating. One of the biggest issues that we have had with IXPs and you go and speak to the telecoms departments in a lot of the governments in these countries, and try and explain to them what an IXP is and we found the simplest way to do this is to literally take a picture of an IXP and go and show it to them because they had an idea that an exchange point is a massive multi‑storey building which needs billions in investment and hundreds of members of staff and, you know, that is part of the reason, that it's just been so slow to get going.

The IXP, you know, market has ‑‑ is varied, depending on where you are. One of the things you will see there is you can still buy a 10 Mbps port. That is slowly changing, but I mean the reality is, at the end of the day, port fees are comparatively high for the kind of value that you are getting out of that port free. But the reality is that IXPs can charge those fees because the transit market is still so expensive, so, you know, whether these port fees are a good or bad thing, that is something that will hopefully change over time. Here is my first up and to the right, I hope, that I am not offending anyone with this but you can see that the Internet bandwidth is growing in Africa, obviously 2012, 2013 is when a lot of cables landed so that was the big uptake but the market is growing at between 40 and 60% annually, so that is always a good sign.

Something else that is very interesting, or exciting for us, is that Africa to Africa connectivity is not going via other continents now so there has been ‑‑ if you look at this stat over here in 2011, probably about two or three percent of Africa to Africa data was going via a different continent. Majority of it going via Europe, and that is still the case. So in 2015 we saw 85% of Africa to Africa traffic going via Europe. Obviously, it is increasing now. And, you know, just an example of this, Swaziland is a country or a kingdom which is inside South Africa, and it is ‑‑ it's about 8 milliseconds or less away from Johannesburg, but because the king owns the regulator and the king owns the telecoms operator, you know, they are still charging 1,000 dollars US per megabit. But they are still sending everything via Europe, to get to content, content that is available 8 milliseconds away, they are sending it to Europe. Nobody really cares because the king is getting his money, but yes, we had a conference there and they took a third of the entire country's bandwidth and allocated it to the NOG at the hotel, we got an STM 1 for the week and that was a third of the country's Internet bandwidth.

And just to highlight that you will see that the red portions over here is the growth of Africa to Africa connectivity, so while the speeds are reasonably low, you know, it is growing, but the best part about this is that the Africa to Africa connectivity is growing, so that has always been a very big contentious issue is cross‑border connectivity.

Unfortunately, our pricing is still very entertaining. You know, if you have a look at Johannesburg, just as an example, the medium price, and this is per megabit, on an STM1, so the medium price is sitting about 75 dollars per megabit. We have seen prices sub 10 in the market so you can imagine if the median is at 75 and you have seen prices as low as that, there are a couple of people out there that are buying it at a terrible price. So if you ever come into Africa just make sure you have got your negotiating shoes on.

Interestingly, comparative to other high cost routes in the world, Africa is starting to fall into line with what the rest of the world is doing on those particular high cost routes.

And then, you know, there is a big market, what we are trying to show here is that South Africa as an example is one of the most attractive markets at this stage, your median age of the population is 25 years old so, you know, those are the kind of people that you target, and 60% of the southern Africa population is in an urban area, which means that they have got more chance of being able to connect to mobile or to mobile broadband or fixed broadband, it's a similar situation in west Africa as well; east Africa is a bit different, most of their population, while they have a lower median age, most of their population is rural, so, not necessarily have access to broadband.

And then another up and to the right, on the right‑hand side, this is in South Africa or basically SADC and this is over the number of years the number of interconnections that we have seen in the co‑location facilities in the last four years, it's now, in the beginning of 2016, over 6,000, I think about 6 and a half thousand cross connects that we are doing in the DC, so the market is open and it is changing rapidly.

This is pretty straightforward, I mean, you will notice the most attractive destinations are the ones that have opened up their market and this is ‑‑ you know, it's interesting in that a lot of those countries that are restricted, the grey areas, have no policy set and a lot of those countries have literally phoned us and said, hello, I am from the government, can you tell us how to build a vendor neutral co‑location centre? And the answer is always no because you are regulating your entire country so there is no point. People see what is happening in Kenya and see what is happening in South Africa with the openness and they kind of just want to do the same thing without having to make the hard decisions of opening up the market.

Then a bit more on the mobile data growth. So, Middle East and Africa's global Internet traffic, 38% of that is mobile. So we have seen LTE rolling out in most of the countries that ‑‑ most of those strong economic countries, South Africa's LTE market is massive at the moment and significantly larger than any of the fixed line alternatives, so I think DSL copper, we have probably got about a million users in South Africa, and LTE has just completely overtaken the market, regardless of the fact that it is slightly more expensive, it's just a hell of a lot easier. And the penetration in sub‑Saharan Africa is sitting at about 79%, mobile penetration.

On to co‑location space, so sub‑Saharan Africa, at the moment we have probably got about 50,000 square metres of co‑location white space, for that, currently the available power is about 45 megawatts, 75% that have 45 megawatts is available in South Africa, so, you know, it is a bit of a difficult market to choose from, you know, there is a lot of space in the rest of Africa but there is no power to keep that going.

And if you compare that to the rest of the world, our 50,000 square metres doesn't look quite as impressive as the rest of the world and the power doesn't either.

So, next hot spots, these have been identified outside of South Africa, Kenya and Nigeria sort of third in the list but these places are all looking very good, they have got infrastructure, they have got good financial markets. And they have good locations as well. So they are going to be the next hot spots but obviously there are one or two issues with each of them, so Dar es Salaam, for example, the fixed line infrastructure within the country is still owned by the State and nobody else may build their own networks or anything to that effect. Nigeria is a very good market, it is going to be a very exciting market but unfortunately they don't have power, and up until recently, one of the only vendor neutral data centres in Nigeria was running diesel as his primary power source and if his generator failed he switched over to the State supply. So look, the white space co‑location, we expect to increase to about 80,000 square metres in 2020, and there is a lot of ‑‑ a lot more neutral facilities coming on‑stream. Right now, Kenya is the hot spot, we have got two independent truly vendor neutral organisations starting up, vendor neutral in Kenya, around mom bass is a, which is near the landing station, so that is also very exciting. They are showing me timecards here.

Statisticically, Johannesburg is still the most attractive place to build. According to these stats, Lagos is also very attractive, but if you had to compare the benchmarking, you will also that the very popular places such as Lagos at the moment, while they have very strong text start‑up industries, you will notice that their power is not great. The availability of infrastructure as well into the metros, as well, is not that strong, but these are things that are changing very quickly.

So what to look out for: Corruption, or as the European call it, it's called an Africa business tax. Poor quality construction, you know, we see a lot of building coming in from the east, and, you know, generally, the quality that we have seen has not been as good as what it should be. You need to consider the multinationals, you need to consider the regulation in each of these countries and you need to consider the ‑‑ who the strong players are and how open they are going to be with you. Political instability is like our motto in Africa, we are very good at that. And the currency, as well, just our South Africa currency at the moment has dropped by about 30% in the last couple of months, I am not sure of the exact figures, every time somebody gives our president a microphone we run to the banks to draw out as as much as we can. If you are outside Africa you can come and have an entire holiday on about 10 US dollars.

And then of course power infrastructure as I mentioned, it is quite a worrying trend in Africa at the moment, that there is not enough investment into power or it has happened too late so now everybody is trying to rush and build power infrastructure as quickly as possible and cut all the corners. And that is it.

JAN ZORZ: Thank you, Andrew.

Very nice presentation. Are there any questions?

AUDIENCE SPEAKER: Max /AO*EPL from RIPE NCC, we have remote participant asking question: Alison wheeler: South African network connection seems to be very dependent on how far you are from the sea, I guess that means issues for landlocked countries?

ANDREW OWENS: Yes and that has been one of the ‑‑ one of the /TKRAO*EUPS drivers, one of the causes of slow interconnection in the centre of Africa so everybody that is on the coast, either on the west or east coast, has the ability to connect to multiple sea cables but the landlocked countries, many of them, you know, have difficulty in getting those connections out because, the central African countries are very politically unstable at the moment so trying to run a fibre cross‑border to get to the centre of Africa has been traditionally a very difficult or an extremely expensive process, and it still is a bit of an issue at the moment, but Africa to Africa connectivity is increasing as I said earlier, I just hope that it's increasing fast enough.

AUDIENCE SPEAKER: No more remote questions for me.

GEOFF HUSTON: From APNIC. That was fascinating presentation and the take away I took from it, perhaps you'd like to comment on, traditionally, we had always thought of continents like Africa as suffering from a technology debt; that we needed to help train, we needed to help develop expertise, we needed to help folk be familiar with the tools and technologies that made up the Internet. Your presentation seemed to actually state very different paradigm, which is this is all about investment in infrastructure, this is about power, this is about installed cable infrastructure. This is actually about economics, the stability of economics and the political issues around economics, so ‑‑ so, evolving picture had a we are seeing for Africa, one really about investments and money as distinct from technological capability, or or is it is there an overwhelming technical debt, what is the burning issue we see today?

ANDREW OWENS: Thanks, Geoff. You know, it's like I said when I started here as a co‑lo and IXP operator, we learned everything that we know now, especially about IXPs and content players and eyeballs and that, we learned that from this community, so there definitely is a need for that and that is always welcome. But how do you train somebody on technology when they can't even keep the lights on so everything has to happen in the right order? So certainly, there are a myriad of issues that we have, you know, it's incredibly difficult, you know, you can imagine how difficult it is to work out a business case for starting up a vendor neutral co‑lo centre and I mean, we as an organisation looked at Kenya, Nigeria for a long time and we had people on the ground in Nigeria, it didn't make business sense. I can't afford to run a co‑lo facility at that level of SLA when I'm running on diesel Jennies, 75% of the time. So, you know, it goes hand in hand; one follows the other, you need to have ‑‑ you need to have stable infrastructure before you can start talking or having those conversations about technology and what we need to learn about that technology. But that said, I mean, we are seeing a lot more innovation and we are seeing a lot stronger technical folk in Africa, and just to highlight that point; I mean, these ‑‑ the stronger guys that we are seeing are coming out of those regions where the deregulation has happened and the markets are open and there is competition and things are starting to stabilise, you know, those are the guys that are making the effort to understand the technology and speaking to guys in this community to find out best practices and that sort of thing. So it will get there eventually. But it needs ‑‑ you know, the base needs to be there in the first place.

GEOFF HUSTON: Thank you.

JAN ZORZ: OK. Where is Randy?

RANDY BUSH: As an American and it would really have helped if you put this on a world map so we could figure out where it was. And put that ‑‑

ANDREW OWENS: It's in Australia.

RANDY BUSH: I appreciate the position of the stable government of South Africa. The techno‑colonialism that we as a community, South Africa as a community, etc., have used in dealing with the African technology for decades is not helping. The regulatory environment, as you point out quite correctly, is critical, but I think the real problem and where change has occurred is in communicating that changing the regulatory environment will increase the productivity, increase the money and increase those who care to line their pockets, and increase those who don't, and communicating that by bringing examples of success in southeast Asia, who have fought for years against the one example they had for open ‑‑ for Internet Exchange, was Singapore, which was a closed owned by sing tell, that is the model they had, nobody had explained it to them. Right. And it's been the case in one or two of those countries, whatever that continent teron is.

ANDREW OWENS: That is a good point and I think everybody understands that the regulatory environment as you saw on that one slide, the majority of the continent doesn't know who their policy should be or it's closed off and in most of those cases it's because the government is making too much money off of the incumbent, and as Randy correctly points out, you know, if you can find a way to speak to government and explain to them that if you opened your market, you would be ‑‑ and you allow the market to thrive and for people to be able to access the Internet and gather data and learn more, you would be changing your economy almost overnight. But because of the political instability some of these countries might not necessarily want their population to get on to the Internet or to learn things or to be able to stand up for themselves. So look, Africa is a continent of 54 completely different countries, so I wouldn't be able to go to somebody in west Africa and say, hey look, South Africa has done this really cool thing, we opened up the market, we have this ‑‑ we have this Internet Exchange that is running at about 90, 100 gigabit per second and our transit prices are dropping because of it and there is more market competition and people are happy and it's all sunny days. They don't want to hear that because they might not necessarily like the South Africa, you know, they want to do things on their own and they have their own reasons for that, but at the end of the day, our business wouldn't exist without the deregulation that happened in South Africa, and, you know, you need to remember as well that that deregulation was forced by the courts; I mean, the government fought against it tooth and nail at the time, and simply because of that, that's why I am standing here, and that's why we still operate as a business.

JAN ZORZ: Andrew, thank you, we are running way behind time. Thank you, Andrew.

So, we are running way behind time aye hope that you will not be very upset to have Shane on the stage and have a short lightning talk about refugee

SHANE KERR: Hot spot.

JAN ZORZ: Yes. Be brief, you have less than ten minutes.

SHANE KERR: Sure. So this is a lightning talk about a little side project that I have done recently, so the punch line in case you want to go back to your e‑mail is that we have set up a wireless 3G to Wi‑fi dongle for a specific purpose of allowing refugees to get on the Internet. So I will go into some of the details. This is a project that was initiated by my friend and colleague Niels and I am also working on it.

Well, people and the Internet should be free. This is actually part of a larger set of work and projects sponsored by a whole lot of people, I am not really involved with any of this part of it but there is a lot of effort to get people connected, refugees and things like that. You can come back and look at the slides later and find out about the larger effort going on.

So, I am not going to talk too much this to this slide either, again we are constrained by times, but I think for me the take away point of this slide is there is a whole lot of legal definitions and ad hoc definitions and different ways people talk about migrants and refugees and things like that.

So, I live in the Netherlands, near Amsterdam, so this project is dedicated to initially getting people in our country on the Internet refugees. So we have an organisation in the Netherlands that is dedicated to dealing with asylum seekers and other refugees and they have policies to provide Internet access along with things like basic food and shelter and things like that. However, because of recent political events there has been a large influx, they have been overwhelmed and they don't provide any services to undocumented, so I skipped over it on the previous slide. We are in a situation right now where if someone documents Holland looking for asylum and they are denied, by law they can't go to any other other EU country, it's not safe for them to go back to where they came from, they don't have any rights and it's a tough situation and these are the kind of people that we are trying to help.

So, yes, as we say here, we are trying to provide Internet access to people who really, really need it and it's very important, we think for everyone but especially for this community. So, in addition to the wireless, the Refugee Hotspot, there is also activities going on to provide normal wired Internet access if that is possible in the place where is people are staying, so people may be staying in temporary house or donated shelter or churches and things like that, in these cases ‑‑ not me but the organisations that you saw there ‑‑ can provide wired access. Sometimes, though, people are basically living in squats, find an abandoned building because they don't have the right to rent a place, they have have to find a place where they can live and put a bed for a few weeks and in this case we hope the Refugee Hotspot is very helpful. As part that have earlier work some centres where people are staying are connected, I wasn't involved with that but the process is working and people are getting connected. So then Niels had this idea to connect the rest of the people use ago wireless hot spot and there was an organisation called hacks hackers which is a combination of a journalist hacks and a techie people, hackers like myself, they had a hackathon and one of the projects was this refugee hot spot, so I wandered into this whole project, started working on the hardware and software and that is led me to be here today.

So, what are the requirements for such a device: It needs to be portable and sturdy, as I mentioned, in a lot of these situations people are squatting so if in in an ban donned restaurant and the new owners are ready to start renovation, you have got to move out. Sometimes the groups go on a protest and they want to take their Internet access with them. We also wanted to make sure it didn't keep track of the activities that people working on it so we wanted to maintain as little state as possible. The bandwidth to be shared by a large number of people, large being in this case, maybe 10 to 20 so not that many but it's a 3G dongle so there is not that much, we have a rate limiting because of that. We wanted to set security expectations, we are not encrypting about the traffic, we provide information about to get full security, and information about what they are getting into it and we have a landing page, the typical click through access to the Internet that people are used to. We also, with the version that is we have done initially, we have remote administration, the organisations that I am working with have a good relationship with the refugees, so we want to do kind of Beta testing and make sure we have a certain level of text support and administration and all this is done with donated funds, we can't buy expensive kit and connectivity.

So, as far as we can tell, there is not really any kind of cheap and easily accessible way to do this. If you buy an off‑the‑shelf 3G to wi‑fi hardware device. There was an existing project that we look at, which had a lot of nice features but it wasn't quite what we wanted so basically we decided to hack it together ourselves, so we picked a /RAS berry pie and that is what we are using T as always with these things we thought we could throw it together in a couple of days but took longer time than that, we initially spent the initial hack /THORPBGS which was two days, and 16 to 24 hours with the two of us extending it and improving it. We also discovered a few other interesting things from the techie point of view that we went through a different 3G dongles, they have more or less worse or better interactions with Linux and other open source stuff, we need special magic voodoo and things to get it to work. Once know the secret words to say it's all good. And we also discovered that these things take a lot more power than you expected, so that was just an unfortunate surprise that held us up for a few hours. And luckily, as we were doing this project the Raspberry Pi 3 came out which integrates a wi‑fi so eliminated a piece of kit and made the process simpler.

This is the way it looks today. We have a landing page translated into a few common languages, Arabic, French, Dutch, English and I don't know ‑‑ Spanish, I guess. We have actually people speaking all of these languages involved that are actually as refugees in Holland right now. If you want to check it out right now, it's actually running over where I was signature, if you look for the wi‑fi access point list, one called Refugee Hotspot, you can go there and check it out. I got a local SIM, so this will be our first load test, if you want to give it a try.

Right now we installed it by hand, working bay script to allow other people to customise it, in cup of with somebody from Athens who wants to work on the refugees they have there. We want to make it that any organisation that wants to provide this kind of service can easily customise it. It's ‑‑ it will still require a little bit of UNIX knowledge, you will have to run shell script and but it should be something that anybody with basic UNIX administration should be able to set up and clone the device using disc copying tools.

And we are going to be Beta testing here probably while I am here, which is a bit unfortunate but Niels can handle all the user support and stuff like that. Yeah, and we are going to be taking it around and letting people know about this work and hopefully seek if we can get help and get this stuff replicated.

If you do want to help, we have everything on GitHub right now. We are ‑‑ I am a tech guy and Niels is more involved with process space, so we obviously don't know much about ‑‑ we have a few to do list things, getting the landing page to be more responsive and things like that. We are looking for Beta testers, if you are involved in the community in your area, please come and we will see what we can do. It's on GitHub. So that's it.

JAN ZORZ: Thank you, Shane. I don't see anybody queuing up, are there any quick questions? No. OK. Thank you, Shane. So now it's a coffee break. Be back at 4:00. We have more talks and at 6:00 you are all invited to the BCOP task force meeting, which will be in this room, I believe. Off for coffee. Thank you.